A note of thanks

I’m going to veer from my normal ramblings about pedagogy, lesson plans and the internet to talk about a faculty strike at the PASSHE system schools, of which I’m a part.

Dear students and the support systems of students (family, friends, loved ones, etc),

I first want to thank you for participating with the strike and supporting your faculty. While I understand the hardship this causes, and hope for a swift resolution (I would love to teach on Monday), I also want to touch on the importance of this event to your education. I know, I know I’m not supposed to be teaching, but sometimes, teachers can’t help themselves.

As a rhetoric scholar I’ve taught courses on the history of rhetorical theory, walking undergrads and grads from pre-Ancient Greek and Roman theory (myth and narrative are early human communications with rhetorical features an functions) through Postmodernism and Feminism. An important feature of Greek and Roman rhetoric is the early understanding that for democracy to flourish, rhetorical practices needed to be taught and theorized. The need for teaching meant the need for quality education – a task of schools was to help Greek Democracy flourish. Rhetoric was a foundational discipline in early educational systems – and education was highly valued by those who could afford it.

When the Founding Fathers of America designed American Democracy, they too saw the need for education. An educated voting population, an educated citizenship meant a stronger Democracy and stronger country, emphasizing the need for quality education.

As women and people of color in America began to fight against their oppression, they fought for access to vote and access to quality education. Early voter suppression was related to illiteracy, further cementing the importance of education to American values and culture.

When the Civil Rights movement again fought for equality, one of the major sites of conflict were K-12 schools. All Americans wanted access to quality education.

I’m assuming at this point that the tying theme is obvious, quality education. This is the heart of the strike – faculty want non-Tenure Track, part-time, and adjunct faculty to earn a living wage so they can afford to stay relevant on the research presented in class, the teaching methods of the discipline, and the topics needing to be taught. There is more at stake; access to funds to support Tenure and Tenure-Track faculty professional development in all these endeavors are also threatened. For students to receive a quality education professors need to continue learning, researching, exploring, thinking, writing, interacting, talking, and so much more. (Both the APSCUF and PASSHE websites detail their sides, please educate yourself)

So, as you continue to support your faculty as they now take up the fight for quality education I want to thank you. I also want to point out what you’re learning through this strike.

For those students standing on the picket line, supporting at the student sit-ins and marches, talking with their faculty members, and supporting the strike – you’re learning about the rhetorical agency of American citizens. This is a foundational principle to our democracy. For some of you, this is your first election, and the first chance where (as adults) your rights and actions as citizens are valued. I’m so proud of all the thinking you’ve done to support faculty, writing you’ve done to support faculty, calling and talking you’ve done to support faculty. Your experiences here demonstrate your ability to transition from the classroom to real-world experiences – qualities your future employers will be lucky to have.

For those students against the strike who have similarly been calling, writing, and engaging the debate to end the strike swiftly so their education isn’t effected, I am also proud of you. Similar to participating students, you are demonstrating your ability to apply classroom learning to real-world experiences and fight for what matters to you!

I really hope this letter demonstrates the ways learning happens, even when traditional classroom learning is interrupted. The way these college students have been taught so well by their faculty that they are beginning to engage with Democracy. These students are our future, and the reason I am fighting for continued quality education at the PASSHE schools. I think your participation in various ways with this strike demonstrate that our fight is the right fight.

In solidarity,

Dr P

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User Experience Assignment

My Technical Writing students are working on a User Experience Assignment – memo specifically – this week. I’m using this post to similarly explore the user experience of casual games. With Cultural Rhetorics behind me, and my amazing co-authors busy with their current project, i’m focusing on casual games games, and the ways I see the learning design of causal games as an important way to re-imagine Gamified System Design in pedagogy – specifically Gamified Pedagogy. One of the important aspects of this will be understanding how casual games communicate learning to their players. So i’m using this memo example as a way to begin thinking through learning design in casual games, and to explore User Experience design as an example for my students.

To: Dr P

From: Dr P (student name goes here)

RE: User Experience Learning Design in Zombie Castaways (memo line should communicate about your memo)

For this project I selected a casual game i’ve been playing called Zombie Castaways. As an avid player of casual games, I think stepping back to consider why I play casual games and how the learning design enhances player experience are important considerations for future application to Gamified Pedagogy discussions (students – here i’m identifying the purpose of this discussion AND where this discussion fits in a broader talk of these types of applications)


Zombie Castaways is a typical casual game, the player engages with multiple, often-multi-phase missions to earn rewards and open new areas/islands. The missions specifically require the player engages with the designed environment in preparation for future missions. To explain game design to players, missions initially appear on the entire screen, detailing the steps necessary to complete the mission. Once a player has read the information, they can shrink the size of the mission so it appears in a smaller mission menu on the left-side of the screen. In initially displaying quests in such large spaces on the screen, the design reinforces gameplay – it teaches players how to progress through the game.

Further, the missions teach the player how to understand the designed play-space, and prepare the learner for future game understanding. In many ways, these are positive designed learning experiences (purpose). For instance, the player can use zombified farmed produce (Hypnosunflowers and Necropumpkins, etc.) to cook potions (Hypnopoppy and Necroclover, etc.). As the player advances and needs to buy more expensive buildings to continue progress through the game, this previous experience farming for the purpose of cooking becomes a way to help the player earn money to afford the buildings required of future quests. Early quest design teaches players to engage with the world in specific ways, that should be useful later. In addition to teaching players to progress through the play experience, the choices in mission design reinforce the purpose. All missions relate to ideas of zombies,. Storyline and plot development build the context of the game while also reinforcing the purpose – zombies and castaways.

These designed quests appeal to broad audiences, but the most appealing aspect is choice (a post-feminist critique of choice in consumerism as feminism succeeding is necessary here, but not appropriate for this particular assignment). Players can choose which quests to complete in which order. When quests depend on each other, players can choose to purchase aspects to complete quests more quickly.

Scope and Medium

While quests are often more complex than outlined here, this general overview serves to highlight the importance of the app medium for this type of game. Casual games played through social network sites like Facebook can be played at a quicker rate when friends contribute to gameplay, however, these games do not require social interaction. For this reason, the app medium, on portable devices, is an important medium that allows for players to interact with the game for short periods of time, whenever it’s convenient. These quests don’t require an hour of sustained play, and the choice offered to players through the app medium allow players to make choices based on the time available to them. I can farm crops when I have longer periods of time (this is a more tedious grinding task that requires plowing, planting, then harvesting after a period of time), or I can use stores of produce to have the cooks prepare the potions (an easy task that requires 2 to 10 quick clicks to complete). This medium and task design further help players understand the game in specific ways, understanding their choice in quest completion has more than just personal choice influences. This is an important moment in game design as ‘good’ game design effortlessly walks players through these choices, engages players with these tasks and missions, teaches players the rules of the game without the player noticing. In providing various missions – not just for choice but also for time – this medium and the design choices more effectively teach players how to play the game and enjoy their play time.

For these reasons the scope of the game design is quite extensive, with special missions, secret islands, and holiday themed events appearing to offer further player engagement and choice. The game scope, in the app medium, further entice the player to continue to revisit the game, and to offer more choice to the player to maintain their engagement and fun.


What becomes apparent from this user experience analysis is the interdependence of audience, medium and scope while audience and purpose are interdependent. Users experience the game through the choices they make, within the design space provided by the game in the app. Extending this beyond the casual game app I want to explore how this approach to learning design can be effective in the classroom, especially the composition classroom.

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Tweeting in the Class

I’m working with a former student on a paper about Twitter in the class – we are both using it to support student learning, and now we’re working through ways to collect data (to see who is participating more than just grading), refine our approaches (for the sake of student learning more than just an article), figure out what our students are learning about writing with this approach.

So, to quick analyze my data, I used TAGS to scrape the Twitter API for my course hashtags, then I used a Word Cloud (Tagul) for brief analysis on word count. This is just to get an idea what is trending for ideas in the feed.


Since there are a significant number of small words, there is a lot of variety. With sharing this, I’m hoping to consider new ways to use Twitter in the class, and new ways to visualize students tweets, this is just step one – create and share.

More as this idea continues to develop…..

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Makerspaces and the Digital

McGrath, Laura and Guglielmo, Letizia (2015). “Communities of Practice and Makerspaces: DMAC’s influence on technological professional development and teaching multimodal composing.” Computers and Composition, 36, 44-53.

I was drawn to this article because of the use of makerspace pedagogy with digital tinkering, or what the authors called ‘messing around’ with digital space. I regularly design Quest days to engage these ideas, I aim to create an atmosphere drawing from makerspace theory with promoting playful experiences and tinkering. I then typically ask students to explore digital designing, digital creating so students can create useful artifacts for themselves from the class to help improve their writing.

In this article McGrath and Guglielmo discuss their experiences at a DMAC summer event in 2006, and the ways they’ve developed similar experiences in their own classrooms. I think the key to this is their aim to support “pedagogically effective use of technology” (p. 46). I also like their inclusion of Communities of Practice to model a supportive, engaged community within the classroom as a way to promote tinkering and assisting.

But, this is also where I struggle with the implementation – in my own classes. Some days we discuss readings, some days we engage in projects, some days we write twitter essays. Each of these approaches fosters different understandings of learning and community – so how do students recognize how to engage with the course material? Is there a transition period while students begin to learn what engagement looks like for a given day?

When we assign longer assignments, that utilize course time across subsequent course meetings, the community expectations are a little easier for students to become familiar and comfortable with. But what about the early portion of the term when we have one-off days as we build up to assignments. This is a space i’m working out as I begin a longer project on Twitter in the classroom with a peer – how do we structure the use of Twitter so it’s importance to the class is obvious without affecting use too much? I want students to tinker, but I also need to value the assignment so I ask for in-class tweets (similar to in-class free writing assignments). That fosters a type of engagement, a type of value, a type of tinkering. How do I think help students see that playful approach when they begin their first essay next week? How do I transfer these ideas, this tinkering, this community support back to essay writing?

I don’t think there is one answer for these questions, and I think the students and the institution (and even instructor reputation) will heavily influence  how students understand and react and build community – I’m more interested in the hows and the whys of transfer. What are effective ways of helping students understand the larger practices involved, and how do I help them transfer this to interdisciplinary writing situations?

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More on Twitter and SNS

This also appears in my working annotated bibliography pages.

Tess, P.A. (2013). The role of social media in higher education classes (real and virtual) – A literature review. Computers in Human Behavior, 29.

In this review article, Tess discusses articles published prior to 2012 that discuss social media in higher education classrooms. Tess found that most of the articles published about social networking sites in the classroom relied on surveys and questionnaires for evidence of outcomes.

While a bit dated in 2016 (year of my posting), his concluding question still stands up 4 years after data collection. Tess asks “Can the same affordances of social networking sites that support individual level use, commend the integration of SNSs into the higher education class?” (p. A66). This question continues to be researched. I continue to grapple with this question when I assign not just SNSs as required technology for the course, but with Web 2.0 technologies (such as Word Clouds and Infographics), and with the learning management system.

This is also a very complex question – do instructors use SNSs in similar ways that influence how a site is assigned? I’ve discussed Twitter with various colleagues, many implement the tool in their classrooms very differently than I do while our learning goals are similar. So in asking if individual level use can be integrated into the higher ed classroom, the researcher also needs to consider practices associated with the SNSs realizing practices are not uniform across users.

It’s this question that I want to focus on here. When I assign Twitter to students, I build the assignment as a “Live Tweeting Class Notes” and “Live Tweeting Reading Notes” assignment, that also requires engagement with peers in the course hashtag. Have I just recreated the discussion board differently? I drew on ideas of Writing about Writing in developing this assignment, where students write informally about their own writing and learning.

What I know so far:

  • students are writing about writing
  • students are practicing writing for a known audience
  • students are writing in a shorthand form that must convey an argument (elevator pitch)
  • students are more engaged
    • favorite created hashtag so far #drphelpmegetthatdegree

Next steps –

  • beyond surveys and questionnaires, how can I measure the effectiveness of Twitter in the classroom?
  • is there a measured difference based on major? Now that I’m teaching a junior level writing with next to no English majors – how does this space help students further along in their majors write about writing?

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Tech Writing and Videogames

I am beginning to build an Annotated Bib with entries based on courses and topics under the Teaching menu. I’ll also post the individual entries in the blog feed, and store these in an easily accessible format through the Teaching heading.

McDaniel, R & Daer, A. (2016). Developer Discourse: Exploring technical communication practices within video game development. Technical Communication Quarterly, 25(3).

McDaniel and Daer report on case-study that explored the intersection of game development and technical communication. The case-study was designed to understand how “professional game developers perceive the contexts, constraints, and conflicts affecting their work” to provide “insights for educators about the type of work future technical communicators may be doing in media-rich environments” (p. 3). This approach and these conclusions are especially important for educators interested in incorporating more multimedia texts into their Technical Communication classroom. Students entering the work force may encounter situations where they will need to create multimedia technical documents for various audiences. McDaniel and Daer’s case-study emphasizes the need for students to understand rhetorical situations as they relate to technical communication, and multimedia technical communication specifically as some documents, problem-solving and communication may need to be multimodal.

Personally, this validated my desire to include a large number of multimedia projects in a Fall 2016 Technical Communication course. McDaniel and Daer’s findings that technical communicators will encounter and create multimodal documents means they need practice and exposure within the classroom, with an emphasis on the rhetorical approach to technical communication within a SPECIFIC workplace so as future employees they know when to use the multimodal document preferred within the office, and when to design using their own ideas.

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Twitter in the Classroom

I’ve been using Twitter in my courses for over a year now, yay! And so far i’ve collected tons of great (anecdotal) evidence that Twitter helps. So now it’s time to actually test the response.

Similar to my last post, my foray into classroom tweeting began with the desire to help students (online graduate students specifically) engage with course material and each other. Twitter seemed like a more effective platform for that engagement because students could post ‘notes’ and then respond to other student notes. The reduction in characters from a fully developed, well articulated discussion board post would, in theory, help students engage with the material so they could then write the fully developed, well articulated, thoughtful discussion board posts I was looking for.

As I begin to put together my IRB paperwork, I need a more clear research question. I began using Twitter to help students write about reading, to help them process their own notes on a deeper level. So an obvious research question here is: do students engage on a deeper level with course material?

But, I need measurable outcomes, measurable data. Here the most obvious is the tweets, i need to collect student tweets to understand trends in twitter use.

Going back to my anecdotal evidence, different classes used Twitter very differently. So, if I gather data from 3 hashtags this term, could I encounter 3 very different uses of Twitter? So then should I start with a more basic research question, when assigned tweets as a writing assignment, what do students do? How do students use Twitter when a required part of the classroom?

No matter what way I lean, IRB will need to go through, and I’ll need to make some decisions about comparing course data since I’m teaching a freshman level composition course, and a junior level composition course. To add to the ‘how do students use Twitter’ I could also look to the data for trend differences in use between the Freshman and Junior level writing courses which would indicate some connection back to understanding writing.

I’ll keep working through these ideas, but the use of Twitter builds upon my eventual hope to incorporate OER into the classroom, can Twitter and required ‘note’ tweets help students engage with course material (the problem here is what does engagement mean? and if I look for traditional ideas of engagement according to comp theory, can I ensure students know what that means and care enough to actually do that, so then am I measuring what students understand to be required versus authentic engagement…….oh the pandora’s box here).

I’ll update further with where I end up with this question – I have some Uses of Facebook in the Composition Classroom articles to read to help solidify my ideas before I submit the concrete proposal.

In the mean time, how do you tweet?

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OER: how do students use them in the classroom?

A year ago this summer I began using Twitter in my classroom with the long term goal of implementing OER (Open Educational Resources). I attended all the teach-ins presented by Faculty Professional Development at my previous institution, and often heard professors struggle in the ed tech sessions with how students learn from technology. While I try to use technology for meaningful learning I struggled with a more basic problem: how do students learn from Reading Online. As yet I haven’t seen an answer. I haven’t even seen much of an engaged discussion about this in relation to OER (and I’ve found nothing on Pinterest but hand notes for K-12 reading, Pinterest is now failing me in sparking brilliance!!!)

Here I will outline my reasons for seeing struggle in a fairly one sided argument (with myself) to continue to move toward the adoption of OER in the classroom. I want to cut down book costs, but I’m still finding students learn better when I assign a book versus an article (accounting for equal level of density between the two). I see huge connections to information literacy development that is necessary outside the classroom, so this isn’t just a cost thing for me.

Problem #1: It’s RARE that  student will come to class with the article printed, while mine is all marked up, noted, questions listed for class on the front, and often color tabbed so I can direct the discussion, check understanding and use the article for engaged learning in game days. On Game Days when students were asked to reference sections of an article, students flipped through pages, back and forth, back and forth, with what seemed like little direction or idea on how to focus and find what they needed in the text.

Problem #2: I don’t know how to transfer my own reading process to an online resource – so how can I guide students to do the same in a freshmen comp course using only OER?

Problem #3: OER are not designed to be printed, so what is the relationship between reading and taking usable notes? Similar to other online debates in relation to education (how do you authenticate the identity of an online student? – ummmm do you check id’s in f2f courses? like that debate) – this is a fine point question. Students don’t always/usually know how to take notes on their reading in a usable way to begin with so why would they know online – so then what do I do?

So it’s problem #3 that I believe provides the entry point (and the connection between maker education, digital rhetoric, and education that I strive for in my research) to OER. But I feel like I need to *solve* #2 to address #3. I need to find ways to take and retain usable notes from all my online reading. I need to find a way to store and access information, article references, annotated bibs for all my school-related reading first. If I can model one approach, and recommend good approaches that didn’t work for me, I’ll be in a place to help guide students through OER.

I think this is a good time to jump in with the why – why is this important. When I first started working at ASU with the hopes of a job paying for my master’s I worked at the front desk of a department. I had calls for 8 hours a day, 5 days a week asking for information that could easily be found on the ASU webpages. I became really good at finding those sources and sending them. Information retrieval, search terminology, all of that is a necessary information literacy skill (yay one more thing that needs to be taught and discussed in an already jam packed semester). The good news here, if I have an ARG for this!! The point is, in a job, this was one of the first skills I was expected to develop, QUICKLY. When I mastered that skill, I was promoted because information retrieval is a skill not many fine tuned. Hopefully the connection here is a bit obvious, students may have to search for articles and ideas for school, but they’ll similarly search in the work world based on modern uses of computers. So reading the internet and retaining/using information read is both an important school-based AND work-based skill (we’re mattress shopping right now, it’s also an adult skill).

The difference here, using my example (and drawing from Gee’s works) is need – I needed to demonstrate strong information literacy so I didn’t sit behind a desk my entire career (plus moving on helped my grad class schedule – so double need). I retain articles and blogs better when I consider using the information in class. I remember romance novels in more detail when I imagine the blog review I would write when I work up the nerve to start my romance review blog. Just like in videogames (Gee) the need to use information increases retention.

So my struggle with OER won’t be solved today, because I don’t know how (similar to textbooks and in-class articles) to make it seem necessary to students. I also don’t think enough research has been conducted on how students approach reading OER versus textbooks to begin to know how to address it. Through my Twitter assignment, I assign necessary tweets reflecting on readings, connecting performance to grade to artificially inflate ‘need’ but I think there are better approaches. So for the next 3 months (Fall term) my goal is to find ways to use online resources without printing. Wish me luck😉

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Social Media Methods

This summer I enrolled in a few FutureLearn MOOCs on various aspects of social media – to help both my research design and my assignment design (#school4life). MOOCs have fascinated me for a long time, and I had a student who loved to argue the increased engagement when students could pick and choose their courses so it’s a topic I’ve discussed heavily. This is not my first, and will not be my last MOOC; but, this will also not be a conversation about MOOCs.

I’m completing a Social Media Analytics course – I’m working through a few projects that collect social media data, so more methods and ideas would be helpful. Since this is an open MOOC, the course begins with a super short post on social media and conversation, focusing specifically on Twitter. The author throws in the idea of sociability, finds Twitter not as sociable as it was in the beginning, then ends the piece. Again, short intro. The course then relies on crowd funded knowledge. This is a fairly common construction of learning in a MOOC. So the discussion asks “Are social media still social?”. As I read through the posts most people discuss ‘social’ a few discuss ‘ conversation’ but no one says anything about ‘sociable’ (random side note: most responses are positive for social media, social, and conversation with hints at tools and know-how in the space but no vocab for those discussions).

When I read the intro article I was so distraced by the idea of sociable I spent a really long time trying to find a consensus for what sociable means – to no avail (Wikipedia failed me!). So I engaged with the idea of sociable and data ethics with my response because I think they are connected. So i’m going to raise the question here – what is sociable? and as a follow-up, how do we know?

Here, on this blog I write and leave my words in the vast wasteland called the internet. Occasionally I have responses, but not often. Does that mean this blog is not sociable? Does a conversation require two people (as i’m revising i’m continue to converse with myself)? Adults often talk ideas through to themselves, I watch my 4yo play out entire imaginary scenes by himself. Are those conversations?

In physics there are two types of energy, potential and kinetic (this all coming from high school physics memory and kid museums). Potential energy is as the name implies, the potential for energy, the moment a roller coaster begins to descend the drop before dropping – at which point the energy becomes kinetic. I feel like social media lives in that moment with potential energy high and kinetic energy low, when i’m about to plummet down the roller coaster drop. This is where sociability belongs for me, because the only way potential energy can be high in social media is if the platform provides tools to allow for conversation.

**caveat** users can be incredibly creative. Elizabeth Losh writes about high school students using an early version of email on a city server who found a way to post messages to each other. So the tools don’t need to be developed for interaction, and users may still find a way.

So when asking about sociability and the internet, I think our discussions need to include the tools (yes, I’ve been obsessed with and studying internet ‘tools’ since my MA, I have problems). But, this is also where the idea becomes really complex. Does it matter how I (user) see the use of the tool for communication when the researcher analyzes my conversation/data? Conversely, if a tool has the potential for social communication, is communication ever not social on the internet? Let’s try this with a ridiculous example (and one recently showcased on Silicon Valley). When Facebook began, before the platform was live for users, there was never just one user. Zuckerberg was never alone on Facebook – he (and his team) needed others to user test and functional test the operating system. These accounts then existed within the space, meaning any *live* tool had the potential for social communication, it is sociable. Did it really matter that the tools weren’t being used to send notes to grandmas yet? To ensure security functions appropriately even developers have 2 accounts on their platforms to check developer access versus user – there are always already multiple accounts. As soon as the internet 0’s and 1’s form a picture, tools and platforms have the potential for interaction – I am arguing that makes them sociable. They have potential for interaction, conversation, sharing, social……but interaction, conversation, sharing, social cannot happen without that tool (in this case it doesn’t need to be a *specific* tool, as multiple tools can facilitate these ideas and platforms often offer multiple).

So, if we accept my premise – and since I’m talking to myself, unless someone responds, I think I will accept my premise – that a tool on the internet has the potential for sociability, can any social media space ever be not social? Based on my premise, we also have to accept that live social media space is always social, and functioning tools provide that potential for kinetic social communication in a way that can never be denied since potential and kinetic are on a sort of sliding scale.

Which then leads to, what is a question like this really asking? And, how does understanding what researchers/educators really ask when they ask if social media is still social may have SERIOUS impact on how they represent data (including accidental bias or misread). So I think this is an important conversation, especially as we head into an election with big data. I changed my facebook profile picture – that’s now being used to predict who I’ll vote for (just an example, who knows if this will happen). We as social media researchers need to consider how asking about the social of social media AND failing to define sociability leads to data interpretations like this. We’re not to blame for lack of critical engagement by some with big data, but we (especially those in the Humanities) are poised to push better interpretations if we ask better questions.

So I leave you with, what is driving “are social media still social” questions and investigations?

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After moving across the country, hello east coast, I’m ready to begin posting again. That was quite the hiatus. I’ve begun working on my summer project list, starting with revisions to a praxiswiki about an assignment.

This had me asking – what is the purpose of an assignment?

This question is asked consistently in WAC/WID in relation to ‘the research essay’ assigned by disciplinary faculty – what do you expect students to be able to show in an essay when you haven’t discussed writing or the purpose of writing in your course? Fair question – but also heavily exemplifying rhet/comp thinking! I ask myself this every term as I modify and shift the syllabi – why do I want students to complete Assignment A and how can I prepare them for that assignment (I don’t want to hate my life while grading after all). This is not always 100% successful but planning for writing discussions is a post for another day.

How did you value reading? This one really stumped me, when was the last time I talked about how to read, and the function of reading in my courses? I know when teaching 210 (Principles of rhetoric) we discuss this with theorists, and we discuss the unction of methodology, results, discussion as format for science papers – we also talk abut literacy and the ways types of reading are valued, but that never translated into “how do you read? how should you read for this class and what does that mean?” But final assignments require students to integrate scholar voices to their writing, to show how they read and make meaning. Then demonstrate their reading through writing.

These are he complicated questions that underlie assignments. Faculty have learning goals for their assignments, skills and knowledge they expect students to demonstrate through assignment completion, but how do we talk about that, support it with theory, and generalize those ideas to others?

These are the questions i’m grappling with, and attempting to answer in less than 2 paragraphs for this short piece i’m revising and resubmitting. Obviously, keeping the discussion short is a huge challenge.

I’ll leave this post with the question of the week: why do we assign ‘the essay’?

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